Tire Technology

Tire Construction

We put more into our tires, so you get more out of them.

A tire is only as good as the sum of its parts. At Yokohama, we meticulously design and engineer every detail so our tires work harder for you, mile after mile. The pictures below highlight the important elements that make up a tire's construction.

Inside the Tire


Tread
The tread (1) is the part of a tire that contacts the road surface and serves to improve water drainage, provide traction, braking and cornering characteristics and ensure long tread life. It consists of a top layer of rubber, compounded to suit the application and a base layer with properties to reduce energy loss.

Shoulder 
The shoulder (2) is designed to protect the belt and carcass of the tire and to dissipate heat.

Sidewall 
The sidewall (3) is the rubber coating that serves to protect the carcass, and is the section of the tire that deflects the most while driving.

Bead 
The bead (4) is the part of the tire that anchors the tire to the wheel.

Belt 
The belt (5) is a reinforcement layer that extends around the outer circumference of the carcass under the tread. It acts as an iron hoop in improving the stiffness of the tread area.

Carcass 
The carcass (6) is the load-bearing framework that forms the body of the tire. Composed of rubber-coated steel cords laid in a radial direction, it contains the inflation pressure that helps support the load and absorb impact.

Inner Liner 
The inner liner (7) is a layer of special rubber that has high resistance to air migration.

Bead Filler 
The bead filter (8) is a reinforcement rubber that has a triangular cross-section which is used to increase the stiffness of the bead.

Bead Wire 
The bead wire (9) is a ring-shaped continuous strand of steel wires that serves as reinforcement material in the tire.

Nylon Chafer and Steel Chafer 
The chafer fabric and steel cords are wrapped around the bead section to reinforce it. It is conventionally composed of steel (11), however, the specification may sometimes call for the use of nylon (10).

Tire Construction

Radial vs. Bias Tires


There are two distinctly different types of construction when it comes to the cords of a tire.

Radial Tires 
The cords forming the carcass of radial tires (A) are arranged perpendicularly to the centerline of the tread, or in a radial direction from the center of the tire.

Bias Tires 
The cords forming the carcass of bias tires (B) are intersected at a diagonal (bias) approximately 40 degrees from the centerline.

Radial vs. Bias




Tubeless Tires
A tubeless tire does not use a tube to hold air. Instead, it maintains inflation pressure by a special rubber liner called the “inner liner” on the internal surface of the tire.

Tubeless Tires

Tire Casing


The casing is the foundation of the tire on which everything rests. At Yokohama, we’re committed to building casings that maximize tread longevity and performance while also ensuring retreadability.

Building the best casing in the industry is no simple feat. Using the Finite Element Method, our engineers can accurately predict the natural growth that occurs during the first 30,000 miles of operation, allowing us to design a casing that adapts to the operational stresses and strains the tire will encounter.

Casing

The cost of replacing tires figures into every fleet's running costs. So, getting the most life out of your tire by maintaining the health of your casings has a direct impact on your bottom line. Here are some quick tips to extend the life of your casings, as well as some indicators of the overall health of your tires and other equipment.



Tire Construction


Each component of the tire must work in harmony with the others for maximum performance.

Steel Belts
Steel belts (1) increase stiffness of the tread area, minimize distortion of the ground contact area, provide added puncture resistance and help increase fuel efficiency.

Body Ply 
A tire’s body ply (2) allows the tire to maintain inflation pressure, which allows the tire to carry a load and resist shock.

Inner Liner
The inner liner (3) minimizes air seepage to maintain air pressure inside the casing.

Belt Edge Cushion 
The belt edge cushion (4) prevents separation of the belt edges and tread caused by a scissoring effect of the belts.

Bead Assembly 
The bead assembly (5) reinforces the bead area to secure the tire against the rim. The fit must be tight enough to prevent air leakage.

Bead Assembly


Ultra-Wide Base Tire Construction


Fleets turn to wide-base tires to help lower operating expenses. From ease of maintenance to increased cargo capacity and decreased fuel consumption, these products are built to improve the efficiency of rigs that equip them.

Five-Belt Package 
A five-belt package (1) creates a flatter carcass line to help maintain original shape for a shorter, more efficient footprint.

Advanced Profile 
Our advanced tire profile (2) is optimized to manage strain from normal operation, resulting in better durability and less casing fatigue.

Zero-Degree Belt 
Zero-degree belts (3) provide even pressure across the contact patch, allowing for even weight distribution, which vastly increases tread life.

Oversized Hexagonal Bead 
An oversized hexagonal bead (4) provides even pressure along the wheel’s circumference to reduce strain and increase treadlife.


Ultra-Wide Base